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During the s, Bremen was often in conflict with the Dutch states. The city began offering contracts to pirates to attack its enemies, and it became a regional hub of piracy.
These pirates targeted foreign shipping around the North Sea and captured numerous vessels. One notorious captain, known as Grote Gherd "Big Gerry" , captured 13 ships from Flanders in a single expedition.
In the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen , which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown. In , the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus , called Hardenberg, as the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation.
So in — after heated disputes — Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again closed its doors.
At the beginning of the 17th century, Bremen continued to play its double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city without its consent.
John Frederick , Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of the Estates and the city of Bremen.
In the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality , since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to their region.
The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen.
Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen seemed relieved. Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade.
Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part. Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications.
In , Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen paid him a ransom of 10, rixdollars in order to spare it a siege. The city remained unoccupied throughout the war.
In September Francis William of Wartenberg , appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates not to be confused with the Estates.
Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen. The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates.
The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.
In October an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen.
John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war.
With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too.
Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from Gelnhausen Privilege. Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden , which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen.
With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe a part of present-day Bremerhaven.
When in March the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War March to July , arguing that it was acting in self-defence.
But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe.
In the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden.
So on 15 November Sweden had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen , obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen and banning Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle.
From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city. The harbour of Vegesack became part of the city of Bremen in In , the French — as they retreated — withdrew from Bremen.
Bremen joined the North German Confederation in and four years later became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire and its successors.
The first German steamship was manufactured in in the shipyard of Johann Lange. In , Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at that time, purchased land from the Kingdom of Hanover , to establish the city of Bremerhaven Port of Bremen as an outpost of Bremen because the river Weser was silting up.
Lloyd was a byword for commercial shipping and is now a part of Hapag-Lloyd. In , the Bremen Cotton Exchange was founded. Henrich Focke , Georg Wulf and Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG in Bremen in ; the aircraft construction company as of [update] forms part of Airbus , [ citation needed ] a manufacturer of civil and military aircraft.
Borgward , an automobile manufacturer , was founded in , and is today part of Daimler AG. In the city became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by the British zone.
In , Martin Mende founded Nordmende , a manufacturer of entertainment electronics. The company existed until OHB-System , a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites , was founded in The University of Bremen , founded in , is one of 11 institutions classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately 23, people from countries.
Bremen lies on both sides of the River Weser , about 60 kilometres 37 miles upstream of its estuary on the North Sea and its transition to the Outer Weser by Bremerhaven.
The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum flows, is the Weser Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe-Weser Triangle.
In terms of area, Bremen is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany after Hamburg and the tenth largest in the whole of Germany see: List of cities in Germany.
The inner city lies on a Weser dune, which reaches a natural height of The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen is However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter.
The record high temperature was Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0.
As in most parts of Germany, the year has been the warmest year on record averaging Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.
Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year counting 84 days with a snow cover.
The warmest months in Bremen are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.
Number of minorities in Bremen by nationality as of 31 December The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen every four years.
Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city. This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy.
The Greens have also been very successful in city elections. The state of Bremen , which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and The Greens.
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